invited
keynotes


Ray_Corrado

Ray Corrado · Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada

Distinguishing ‘the map from the terrain’: Clarifying the psychopathy construct and its role in risk assessment

Raymond R. Corrado is a full professor in the School of Criminology at Simon Fraser University and was an associate faculty member in the Psychology department and the Faculty of Health Sciences. He is a Visiting Professor in the Faculty of Law at the University of Bergen and a Visiting Fellow at Clare Hall College and the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge. He is a founding member of the Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute at Simon Fraser University. Dr. Corrado also was a former co-Director of the BC Centre for Social Responsibility and former Director of the Centre for Addictions Research British Columbia, at Simon Fraser University. He has published over 100 articles and book chapters on a wide variety of policy issues, including juvenile justice, serious and violent young offenders, mental health, adolescent psychopathy, Aboriginal victimization, child/adolescent case management strategies, and terrorism.
As part of his more recent research, Dr. Corrado is the principal investigator of the ongoing Incarcerated Serious and Violent Young Offender Study. This project has become the largest and longest running study of young offenders in Canada. His research team is currently in the process of tracking these young offenders through adulthood. As part of this project, his research team is in the process of examining the construct validity and predictive validity of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality- Institutional Rating Scale (CAPP-IRS) among a sample of approximately 250 serious and violent young offenders.

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Abstract. This keynote address discusses why psychopathic personality disturbance (PPD) appears to be inadequately measured by existing research instruments and illustrates why measurement more towards the clinical perspective of PPD as a personality construct is beneficial, especially from a risk assessment perspective. The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) is asserted to help further this movement. Particular focus will be given to the assessment of PPD among adolescents and the importance for risk assessors to move beyond the typical or predominant approach that involves the narrow focus on recidivism. Using more sophisticated analytic strategies that better model the complexity of offending over time is needed to avoid under-estimating the utility of PPD as a key covariate. In this address, the value of merging a CAPP-centered approach to PPD measurement with a criminal career approach to risk assessment is asserted. Data from the Incarcerated Serious and Violent Young Offender Study, the largest and longest-running study of adolescent offenders in Canada, is used to assess this assertion as well as the assertion that relying on recidivism to assess the ability of instruments to capture ‘risk’ is simplistic and misleading. Challenges with and strategies for the assessment adolescent PPD are discussed to help practitioners with implementing the CAPP.

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David_Farrington

David Farrington · Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, UK

Psychological contributions to the explanation and prevention of offending

David P. Farrington is Emeritus Professor of Psychological Criminology and Leverhulme Trust Emeritus Fellow in the Institute of Criminology, Cambridge University.  He received the Stockholm Prize in Criminology, and the Freda Adler Distinguished Scholar Award of the ASC Division of International Criminology, in 2013. He is Chair of the ASC Division of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology. He has been President of the ASC, President of the European Association of Psychology and Law, President of the British Society of Criminology, President of the Academy of Experimental Criminology, Chair of the Division of Forensic Psychology of the British Psychological Society, Chair of the UK Department of Health Advisory Committee for the National Program on Forensic Mental Health, Vice-Chair of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences Panel on Violence, and Co-chair of four OJJDP, NIJ, and CDC Study Groups. He has received the Sellin-Glueck and Sutherland Awards of the ASC, the European Association of Psychology and Law Award for Outstanding Career-Long Contributions, the Joan McCord Award of the Academy of Experimental Criminology, the Jerry Lee Award of the ASC Division of Experimental Criminology, and the Robert Boruch Award of the Campbell Collaboration. His major research interest is in developmental criminology, and he is Director of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of over 400 London males from age 8 to age 56. In addition to over 600 published journal articles and book chapters on criminological and psychological topics, he has published nearly 100 books, monographs and government reports.

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Abstract. First of all, I review knowledge about personality, hyperactivity, impulsivity, low intelligence, low attainment and low empathy in relation to offending. Then I review knowledge about parental discipline, parental supervision, parental attitude, young parents, child abuse, criminal parents, parental conflict and disrupted families in relation to offending. Then I review several major developmental and life-course theories of offending. Then I review the effectiveness of prevention methods, including home visiting, pre-school intellectual enrichment programmes, parent training, child skills training, anti-bullying programmes, mentoring, Functional Family Therapy, Multisystemic Therapy and Communities that Care. I conclude that the benefits of these programmes greatly outweigh their costs. I end with recommendations about how psychologists can contribute more effectively to knowledge, theory and policy on offending.

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Rolf_Loeber

Rolf Loeber · University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

The development of risk patterns, their impact on emerging delinquency in males and females, and their relevance for interventions

Rolf Loeber, Ph.D., is Distinguished University Professor of Psychiatry, and Professor of Psychology, and Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He is Director of the Life History Program and is the initiator of two large longitudinal studies, the Pittsburgh Youth Study, and the Pittsburgh Girls Study. He has published widely in the fields of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency, substance use, and mental health problems. He is an elected member of the Koninklijke Academie van Wetenschappen (Royal Academy of Sciences) in the Netherlands, and the Royal Irish Academy in Ireland.

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Abstract. Whereas much research is available on trajectories and pathways of individuals’ offending between childhood and adulthood, fewer research studied have focused on the developmental aspects and the unfolding of risk factors during that period that are known to account for individual differences in offending. The present paper addresses these issues by presenting a model of the unfolding of risk factors with development, the linear and nonlinear dose-response relationships between risk factors and delinquency outcomes for boys and girls, and the relevance of this knowledge for interventions to prevent or remediate delinquency.

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William_Marshall

William Marshall · Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

The effective elements of sexual offender treatment

Bill Marshall is an Emeritus Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry at Queen's University in Canada, where he taught for 28 years. He is was also Director of Rockwood Psychological Services for 45 years. Rockwood provided treatment, assessment, and research services for various disorders, including sexual offending. Bill has been on the Editorial Boards of 20 international scientific journals, and has over 400 publications including 21 books. He has consulted with, and provided training for, prison services in 15 countries and presented at conferences around the world. In addition to numerous other awards, in 2000 Bill was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada for his contributions to science and in 2006 he was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada, the highest honor a Canadian citizen can receive.

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Abstract. This talk will examine the potential relevance on the effectiveness of sexual offender treatment of four elements: 1) The targets of treatment; 2) the procedures used to change these targets; 3) therapeutic processes displayed by the therapist; and 4) the theoretical orientation of the program.
Treatment targets should be those potentially modifiable factors that research has shown to predict reoffending, while the procedures aimed at changing these targets should be derived from evidence of their efficacy. Relevant therapeutic processes should involve empirically established features (eg, empathy, warmth, respect and a rewarding style) that facilitate the development of an effective therapeutic alliance and an appropriate group climate. The theoretical orientation of programs have ranged from cognitive/behavioral, psychodynamic, multi-stystemic, to a variety of other approaches. Evidence will be considered in support, or otherwise, of each of these elements, as well as the overall effectiveness of sexual offender treatment. Finally, a strength-based approach to treatment, derived from research in "positive psychology", and including the above elements, will be outlined along with a tentative outcome appraisal.

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Reinhard Merkel

Reinhard Merkel · Faculty of Law, University of Hamburg, Germany

Neuroimaging and criminal law

Reinhard Merkel is a Professor for Penal Law and the Philosophy of Law at the University of Hamburg. He is a member in several highly respected scientific or governmental committees or boards: (1) he is a member of the Ethics Board for the German Government ("Deutscher Ethikrat"), (2) since 2011 he belongs to the „Leopoldina“, the National Academy of Science (Section: Theory of Science), and (3) since 2008 he is a member of the transatlantic research group "The Hinxton Group: An International Consortium on Stem Cells, Ethics & Law" (Hinxton (UK) and Baltimore (USA)). He studied Law, Philosophy and Literature at the universities of Bochum, Heidelberg and Munich. He passed both of the two legal state examinations at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) in Munich. He was also a research scientist at the Max-Planck-Institute for International Social Law (Munich). In addition, he worked as a journalist for the renowned German weekly newspaper „Die Zeit“ from 1988 to 1990. In 1991 he received the Jean-Amery prize for essay writing. In 2008 and 2009 he was a Fellow at the „Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin“ (Institute for Advanced Study).

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Abstract. Methods of neuroimaging have sporadically, though in recent years increasingly, occurred in legal proceedings. By now, however, it seems that they are about to enter courtrooms on a systematic basis. This poses a host of normative problems, to do, for instance, with future applications of neuroimaging to determine culpability, to test the veracity of testimony, or predict the future dangerousness of perpetrators. The latter two: brain-based lie detection and »neuroprediction« of dangerousness are examined in this article. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is taken as a paradigm model, and its potential impacts on criminal trials are explored.

The analysis is premised on a range of basic distinctions: between (1) different phases of a criminal trial; (2) the divergent roles played by the parties to a trial, most notably prosecution and counsel, and the different evidentiary goals and burdens associated with these roles; and (3) between compulsory and consensual fMRI. – It turns out that there are no good reasons to ban fMRI for lie detection or for neuroprediction from criminal proceedings entirely. Instead, it should be admitted differentially in criminal trials, viz., only for purposes of exoneration, but not of conviction, of the defendant. Substantiating arguments are expounded. In cases of preventive detention, it may even be obligatory for the state to offer chances of possibly exonerating brain imaging to perpetrators who were otherwise considered candidates for indefinite custody.

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Christiane Spiel

Christiane Spiel · Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna, Austria

Violence prevention in the public school system: Experiences from a national strategy

Christiane Spiel is Professor of Bildung-Psychology and Evaluation and department head at the Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna. She is and has been chair and member of various international advisory and editorial boards as e.g., president of the European Society for Developmental Psychology and of the Austrian Psychology Association, and founding dean of the Faculty of Psychology at the University of Vienna. In several projects she worked together with the Austrian Federal Ministry for Education and the Austrian Federal Ministry for Science and Research. She has got several awards for research, university teaching, and university management and has published more than 200 original papers. Her research topics are on the boarder between developmental psychology, educational psychology and evaluation. Specific research topics are: Bullying und victimization, integration in multicultural school classes, lifelong learning, change measurement, evaluation research and quality management in the educational system.

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Abstract. Violence in schools is a worldwide problem and significant investment of resources for the implementation of research-based programs has been made by national institutes in several countries. However, the deployment of research findings in applied settings remains slow and incomplete. It turns out that national strategies actively supported by governments are needed for sustainable violence prevention. The paper presents the Austrian national strategy “Together against violence” implemented in the public school system since 2008. In formulating the strategy a systematic procedure involving international experts and a number of local stakeholders was applied. Six activity domains – (1) policy and advocacy, (2) information and public relations, (3) networking and cooperation, (4) knowledge transfer and education, (5) prevention and intervention, (6) evaluation and research – and the steps necessary for implementation were defined. Challenges and results in implementing the national strategy are presented. Finally, lessons learned for implementing intervention research into public policy and the promotion of evidence-based policy and practice are discussed.

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Renate_Volbert

Renate Volbert · Berlin University of Psychology, Berlin, Germany

What do we learn from deception detection research for single case decisions?

Renate Volbert is a Professor of Forensic Psychology at the Berlin University of Psychology, and a lecturer at the Institute of Forensic Psychiatry, Charité Berlin.
She got her diploma in psychology from the University of Bielefeld, her Ph.D. from the Technical University of Berlin and the Venia legendi from the Free University of Berlin. She is licensed as Forensic Psychologist.
Her main research interests are credibility assessment, suggestibility, secondary victimization, and false confessions.
She has written many articles on credibility assessment and a book on the differentiation between trauma and false memories. She has also co-authored a textbook on forensic psychological evaluations (with Klaus-Peter Dahle) and co-edited a handbook on psychology and law (with Max Steller).
Prof. Volbert has been a member of the Executive Committee (1999 – 2009) and chair (2007 – 2009) of the Psychology and Law Division of the German Psychological Association and is currently (since 2014) president elect of the European Association of Psychology and Law She often appears as a court-appointed expert witness on credibility assessment.

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Abstract. Decades of deception research have clearly established that there are no unique behavioural indicators of deceiving. It seems to be more promising to investigate cognitive activities specific to different forms of deceiving or truth telling instead: It is not necessarily easier to remember or to invent something; it depends on the demands imposed by specific tasks, and these demands may vary within the legal context: A witness giving false testimony about an offense that never happened is pretending to have such a memory. In contrast, an offender who claims not to have committed a crime is denying having such a memory. The lecture will explore how focussing on respective markers of these different cognitive activities may improve the detection of psychological differences between truth-tellers and deceivers.
Another challenge lies in transferring results of empirical research into diagnostic strategies for individual cases. For single case evaluations, information on the specificity of indicators is very important. In addition, individual differences are crucial since people differ in how they relate truthful experiences and how well they produce fabricated statements. Deviation from baseline might be therefore more informative than the mere presence or absence of cues. Although this has often been acknowledged, there is little research on how such individual differences are linked to cues of deception or truthfulness. This lecture will look at what information we do have and should have in terms of specificity of indicators and relevant individual differences for the purpose of making valid assessments in single cases.

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